Advertisement

Microstructure and Meltability of Model Process Cheese Made with Rennet and Acid Casein

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      Process cheese models were prepared by blending acid or rennet casein, milk fat, sodium chloride, 2.5% emulsifying salt, and water and heating to 80°C. Four emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, disodium phosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, or sodium aluminum phosphate) were used. Undenatured or heat-denatured whey protein was added at 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5%. Microstructure and meltability of the models were examined. Emulsifying salts affected the degree of emulsification and meltability of the samples. Rennet casein models prepared with tetrasodium pyrophosphate or disodium phosphate were highly emulsified and had poor meltability. Samples prepared with trisodium citrate or sodium aluminum phosphate were not as emulsified and melted well. Acid casein models prepared with disodium phosphate were highly emulsified and melted very well. The remaining acid casein models had very open structure and melted well. Meltability decreased as whey protein concentration increased in both acid and rennet casein models. The highest whey protein concentration in the rennet casein model produced fibrous structures around the fat globules. Addition of whey protein to acid casein models did not affect emulsification. A relationship was noted between the fat emulsion and meltability in rennet casein but not in acid casein models.

      References

      1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1980. Official methods of analysis. 13th ed. Washington, DC.

        • Burr I.W.
        Applied statistical methods.
        Academic Press, New York, NY1974
        • Ernstrom C.A.
        • Sutherland B.J.
        • Jameson G.W.
        Cheese base for processing: a high yield product from whole milk by ultrafiltration.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1980; 63: 228
        • Hiller A.
        • Palzin J.
        • Van Slyke D.D.
        Study of conditions for the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in proteins: description of methods with mercury catalyst and titrimetric and gaso-metric measurements of the ammonia formed.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1948; 176: 1401
        • Kalab M.
        Milk gel structure. VI. Cheese texture and microstructure.
        Milchwissenschaft. 1977; 32: 449
        • Levinton A.
        Hydrolysis of polyphosphates in milk and milk concentrates.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1964; 47: 670
      2. Lonergan, D. A. 1982. Ultrafiltration and diafiltration's effect on casein micelles. Paper Number 82-6023, 1982 Annu. Mtg. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., June 27-30. St. Joseph, MI.

        • Maubois J.L.
        • Mocquot G.
        Cheese preparation from liquid precheese by ultrafiltration.
        Lait. 1971; 51: 495
        • Morr C.V.
        Some effects of pyrophosphate and citrate ions upon the colloidal caseinate-phosphate micelles and ultrafiltrate of raw and heated skimmilk.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1967; 50: 1038
        • Nakajima I.
        • Kawanishi G.
        • Furuichi E.
        Reaction of melting salts upon casein micelles and their effects on calcium, phosphorus and bound water.
        Agric. Biol. Chem. 1975; 39: 979
        • Noonan C.J.
        Domestic casein is not cost-effective.
        Dairy Field. 1984; 5: 42
        • Odagiri S.
        • Nickerson T.A.
        Complexing of calcium by hexamethaphosphate, oxalate, citrate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate in milk. II. Dialysis of milk containing complexing agents.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1965; 48: 19
        • Olson N.J.
        • Price W.V.
        A melting test for pasteurized process cheese spreads.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1958; 41: 999
        • Price W.V.
        • Winder W.C.
        • Swanson A.M.
        • Sommer H.H.
        The sampling of cheddar cheese for routine analysis.
        J. Assoc. Offic. Agric. Chem. 1953; 36: 2.14
        • Rayan A.H.
        • Kalab M.
        • Ernstrom C.A.
        Microstructure and rheology of process cheese.
        Scanning Electron Microsc. 1980; 3: 635
        • Schulz M.E.
        Preparation of melt-resistant process cheese.
        US Pat. 1976; (3,962,483)
        • Sood V.K.
        • Kosikowski F.V.
        Process cheddar cheese from plain and enzyme-treated retentates.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1979; 62: 1713
        • Templeton H.L.
        • Sommer H.H.
        Studies on the emulsifying salts used in processed cheese.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1936; 19: 561
        • Thomas M.A.
        • Newell G.
        • Abad G.A.
        • Turner A.D.
        Effect of emulsifying salts on objective and subjective properties of processed cheese.
        J. Food Sci. 1980; 45: 458
        • Vakaleris D.G.
        • Price W.V.
        A rapid spectrophotometric method for measuring cheese ripening.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1959; 42: 264
        • Van Slyke L.L.
        • Price W.V.
        Cheese.
        Orange Judd Publ. Co., New York, NY1949
        • Webb B.H.
        • Johnson A.H.
        • Alford J.A.
        Fundamentals of dairy chemistry.
        2nd ed. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT1974
        • Zittle C.A.
        • DellaMonica E.S.
        • Rudd R.K.
        • Custer J.H.
        Binding of calcium to casein: influence of pH and calcium and phosphate interaction.
        Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1958; 76: 342