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Influence of Adjunct Cultures on Ripening of Reduced Fat Edam Cheeses

  • W. Tungjaroenchai
    Affiliations
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
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  • M.A. Drake
    Affiliations
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Approved for publication as Journal Article No. J-9737 of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University. Research was completed as part of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Project No. MIS-320902 501020
    C.H. White
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Footnotes
    1 Approved for publication as Journal Article No. J-9737 of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University. Research was completed as part of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Project No. MIS-320902 501020
    Affiliations
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Approved for publication as Journal Article No. J-9737 of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University. Research was completed as part of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Project No. MIS-320902 501020
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      Abstract

      The influence of four adjunct cultures [Brevibacterium linens (BL2), Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus (LH212), and Lactobacillus Reuteri (ATCC 23272)] on chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced fat Edam cheese was studied. The aminopeptidase activity of Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis was higher than that of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Brevibacterium linens, respectively. Mean percent fat and moisture contents of reduced fat cheese were 20.85 ± 0.69 and 42.95 ± 0.43, respectively. Percentage of fat and moisture of full fat control cheese were 30.06 ± 0.78 and 39.11 ± 0.60. Titratable acidity increased in all cheese with aging while pH initially decreased but increased in cheese after 6 mo aging at 7°C. Lactic acid bacteria counts were on average one log higher for reduced fat cheeses than for full fat control cheese and counts decreasing with aging. Free amino acids (FAA) in cheeses increased with aging, and were higher in reduced fat cheeses than in the full fat control cheese. Reduced fat cheeses containing L. helveticus exhibited the highest FAA content. Descriptive sensory panelists (n = 9) did not detect differences among cheeses after 3 and 6 mo ripening, but aged/developed flavors (fruity, nutty, brothy, sulfur, free fatty acid) and sweetness increased between 3 and 6 mo. Expert panelists (n = 6) detected differences in texture quality among the cheeses. Reduced fat control cheeses and reduced fat cheeses with L. helveticus and L. reuteri received the highest texture quality scores. Addition of L. helveticus and Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, as adjunct cultures to reduced fat Edam cheeses increased proteolysis, while the addition of L. helveticus and L. reuteri increased texture quality of cheeses.

      Key words

      Abbreviation Key:

      AP (acetate:propionate), CRD (completely randomized design), FAA (free amino acid)

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