Research-Article| Volume 25, ISSUE 2, P117-128, February 1942

Download started.


Various Oils and Fats as Substitutes for Butterfat in the Ration of Young Calves1

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Feeding tests were conducted to compare the feeding value of the following fats and oils for calves: butterfat, lard, tallow, coconut oil, peanut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil and soybean oil. The effect of a very fat-poor diet on calves was also determined. Each oil or fat was added to skim milk, homogenized to form a product containing 3.5 per cent fat and fed along with a low fat content concentrate mixture, cod liver oil and some alfalfa hay. One control group was fed normal whole milk not homogenized. Test periods ranged from a few days to about six months.
      In average daily gain in weight as well as in general well-being, the calves fed butterfat excelled those in all other groups. Following closely were those receiving lard and tallow. Corn oil, cottonseed oil and soybean oil were the least satisfactory. The average daily gains of calves in the latter three groups were .40 pound, .31 pound and .32 pound, respectively. They appeared unthrifty, listless and emaciated. Some calves in these groups died and others were saved only by changing to whole milk.
      Post mortem examinations showed considerably more fat deposited in calves fed butterfat than in those that had been fed other oils and fats.


        • Allen N.N.
        A Simple Volumetric Method for Determination of Fat in Blood Plasma.
        Soc. Expt. Biol. and Med. Proc. 1934; 31: 991-993
        • Burr G.O.
        • Burr M.M.
        On the Nature and Role of the Fatty Acids Essential in Nutrition.
        Jour. Biol. Chem. 1930; 86: 587-621
        • Fingerling G.
        Beitrage zur Physiologie der Ernährung waehsender Tiere. I. Ersatz von Vollmileh durch Magermilch mit und ohne surrogate bei Kälbern.
        Landw. Vers. Sta. 1909; 68: 141-188
        • Gullickson T.W.
        • Fountaine F.C.
        The Use of Various Oils and Fats for Calf Feeding.
        Jour. Dairy Sci. 1939; 22: 471-472
        • Hendricks J.
        Calf Feeding Experiments with Separated Milk and Oils.
        Highland and Agr. Soc. Scot. Trans. 1913; 25: 259-282
        • Leach T.A.
        • Golding N.S.
        A Preliminary Report of the Substitution of Pilchard Oil for Butterfat in Milk for Calf Feeding.
        Sci. Agr. 1931; 12: 204-205
        • Lindsey J.B.
        Feeding Calves for Veal.
        Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta., 12th Ann. Eeport. 1894; : 125-145
        • Schantz E.J.
        • Elvehjem C.A.
        • Hart E.B.
        The Comparative Nutritive Value of Butterfat and Certain Vegetable Oils.
        Jour. Dairy Sci. 1940; 23: 181-189
        • Schantz E.J.
        • Boutwell E.K.
        • Elvehjem C.A.
        • Hart E.B.
        The Effect of Added Egg Phospholipida on the Nutritive Value of Certain Vegetable Oils.
        Jour. Dairy Sci. 1940; 23: 1201-1204
        • Schantz E.J.
        • Boutwell R.K.
        • Elvehjem C.A.
        • Hart E.B.
        The Nutritive Value of the Fatty Acid Fractions of Butterfat.
        Jour. Dairy Sci. 1940; 23: 1205-1210
        • Schmalfuss H.
        • Werner H.
        • Esskuchen E.
        Vergleieh von Lebertran. Lebertran-emulsion, und Kokosol Emulsion an Kälbern.
        Zuchtungskunde. 1938; 13: 31-43