Research-Article| Volume 72, ISSUE 10, P2790-2800, October 1989

Why Alter Milk Composition?

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      There are multiple reasons to alter milk composition. This paper delineates and discusses the processing, economic, regulatory, marketing, dietary, and future trends affecting alteration of milk composition. The ability to divide milk into various components creates a multitude of products that can be used as ingredients in both food and nonfood manufacturing. In almost every use, there are competing products from nonmilk sources. Economic and marketing factors will dictate the success of any product derived from milk for which the milk composition has been altered. In reviewing future trends, it is always dangerous to predict how markets could change and what the possible response of the dairy industry to such trends might be. A number of current trends, if they continue, may bring important changes both in the production and manufacturing sides of the industry.


        • Adams J.R.
        • Trachtenberg J.A.
        Losing the battle of the bulge.
        Forbes. 1986; 11: 166
        • Banks W.
        • Clapperton J.L.
        • Steele W.
        Dietary manipulation of the content and fatty acid composition of milk fat.
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 399
        • Buchanan R.A.
        • Rogers W.P.
        Manufacture of butter high in linoleic acid.
        Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 1973; 28: 175
      1. Bunch K. L. 1987. Food consumption, prices and expenditures. Stat. Bull. 749, USDA, Washington, DC.

      2. Bunch, K. L., and G. Simon. 1985. Food consumption, prices, and expenditures, 1964-84. Stat. Bull. 736. USDA, Washington, DC.

        • Cheeseman G.C.
        Future trends in milk consumption and composition.
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 427
        • Cockbum F.
        Milk composition the infant human diet.
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 361
        • Dallman P.R.
        • Siimes M.A.
        • Stekel A.
        Iron deficiency in infancy and childhood.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1980; 33: 86
        • Donovan S.
        Milk composition and its implications in the adult diet.
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 375
        • Fluid Milk
        • Trends
        Fluid milk sales are upward bound.
        Dairy Field. 1984; 12: 8
        • Garrison R.H.
        • Somer E.
        The nutrition desk reference.
        Keats Publ. Inc., New Canaan, CT1985
        • Hettinga D.H.
        Processing technologies for improving the nutritional value of dairy products.
        Designing foods. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC1988 (Page 292)
        • Kolars J.C.
        • Levitt M.D.
        • Avugi M.
        • Savaiana D.A.
        Yogurt: An autodigesting source of lactose.
        New England J. Med. 1984; 310: 1
        • LaCroix D.E.
        • Mattingly W.A.
        • Wong N.P.
        • Alford J.A.
        Cholesterol, fat and protein in dairy products.
        J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1973; 62: 275
        • Lecos C.W.
        Planning a diet for a healthy heart.
        FDA Consumer. 1987; 21: 29
        • Linn J.G.
        Factors affecting the composition of milk from dairy cows.
        Designing foods. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC1988 (Page 224)
        • MacDonald I.A.
        • Bokkenheuser V.D.
        • Winter J.
        • McLernon A.M.
        • Mosbach E.H.
        Degradation of steroids in the human gut.
        J. Lipid Res. 1983; 24: 675
      3. Manchester, A. C. 1986. The changing uses of milk: constraints and incentives. Paper pres. Comm. Technology. Options to Improve Nutr. Attributes of Anim. Agric. Board Agric. Natl. Res. Counc. April 29, 1986.

        • Marshall E.
        Diet advice, with a grain of salt and a large helping of pepper.
        Science. 1986; 231: 537
      4. Miller, J. J. 1984. Impact of ultra-high temperature milk on the US dairy industry. No. AER-516, Agric. Econ. Rep., Econ. Res. Serv., US Dep. Agric.

        • Muir D.D.
        Expanding traditional uses of milk.
        Hannah Res. Inst. 1985; 28: 30
        • Muir D.D.
        • Banks J.M.
        • Powell A.K.
        • Sweetsur A.W.M.
        Milk composition manufacturing properties.
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 385
        • National Research Council
        Designing foods: animal product options in the marketplace.
        Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC1988
        • Novakovic A.M.
        • Alexander C.S.
        Economics of on- farm ultrafiltration of milk.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1987; 70: 76
        • Peaker M.
        • Faulkner A.
        Soluble milk constituents.
        Soc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 419
      5. Progressive Grocer, 1987. Eat, drink and be healthy. 66(7):139.

      6. Progressive Grocer. 1988. The dairy case; all filled up and no place to grow. 67(1):41.

        • Rados B.
        Eggs and dairy foods: dietary mainstays in decline.
        FDA Consumer. 1985; 19: 11
        • Rozovski S.J.
        Nutrition for older Americans.
        Aging. 1984; 3: 48
        • Sweetsur A.W.M.
        • Muir D.D.
        Natural variation in heat stability of concentrated milk before and after homogenization.
        J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 1982; 35: 120
        • Swientek R.J.
        • Duxbury D.D.
        Dairy industry trends; new products/market outlook forsees growth of extended shelf life, aseptic, reduced fat, supcrpremium, light, and convenience foods.
        Food Process. 1987; : 108
        • Thomas P.C.
        Milk protein.
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1983; 42: 407
        • Trafford A.
        American's diet wars; controversy in the lab leads to trouble at the table.
        US News World Rep. 1986; 100: 62
      7. US Department of Agriculture. 1976. Composition of foods: dairy and egg products. Agric. Handbook No. 8-1.

        • Umhofer J.
        • Otto A.
        When is “light” right?.
        Dairy Foods. 1987; 6: 13
        • Young C.W.
        • Hillers J.K.
        • Freeman A.E.
        Production, consumption, and pricing of milk and its components.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1986; 69: 272