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Predictive Formulas for Yield of Cheese from Composition of Milk: A Review1

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      Abstract

      Various yield formulas are described or developed where cheese is considered as a three-phase system of fat, para-casein, and water and water solubles. Type A formulas distribute moisture, whey solids, and salt proportionally to both para-casein and fat in cheese. Type B formulas include whey solids and salt with the para-casein and distribute moisture proportionally to fat and fat-free cheese. Type C formulas include whey solids, salt, and moisture only with para-casein. Type E formulas are those based on actual cheese making. Types A, B, and C formulas were developed from the basic yield formula of yield equaling recovered fat plus complex of recovered para-casein and calcium phosphate plus cheese whey solids plus cheese moisture. It would appear that they could be applied to most varieties of cheese. However, research is needed to verify constants in predictive formulas under commercial conditions.
      The formulas include whey solids as a separate factor, which is necessary when moisture in cheese varies. The formulas were adapted to include a “solute-exclusion” factor for that portion of moisture bound to para-casein that does not contain whey solids.
      The merits of targets of constant moisture in cheese versus constant moisture in the fat-free cheese are discussed; the latter is desirable for quality and for sensory considerations when the casein: fat ratio in milk is not constant, particularly for reduced fat variants of cheese varieties. Type A and type B formulas use moisture; those of type C use moisture in fat-free cheese.
      Predictive yield formulas from milk composition are discussed for application in industrial or experimental cheese making. They can serve as targets for yield, as a base in expressing actual yields as percentage of theoretical yield, and for application in multiple component pricing of milk.

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