Concerns of Microbial Pathogens in Association with Dairy Foods

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Recent outbreaks of foodborne disease linked to Salmonella, Listeria, and Yersinia have highlighted consumer awareness of microbiological problems in the food supply. Such outbreaks affirm the need for improved testing, environmental monitoring, and epidemiological surveillance. This paper reviews the entry of microbial pathogens into foods, with an emphasis on dairy products, by examining the contribution of the processing environment to microbial contamination. Numerous surveys, including a recent audit of dairy processing plants in Vermont, have revealed common foci of environmental contamination by Listeria and Yersinia persistent within dairy processing environments. With respect to dairy products, the bacterial pathogens discussed in this manuscript share a common source, raw milk. Characteristics possessed by Salmonella, Listeria, and Yersinia are compared and contrasted. In the case of Listeria, this bacterium's role as a newly emerged foodborne pathogen is discussed. Finally, the economic consequences associated with foodborne disease are highlighted, and future prospects related to foodborne illness are presented.

      Key words


        • Archer D.L.
        Enteric microorganisms in rheumatoid diseases: causative agents and possible mechanisms.
        J. Food Prot. 1985; 48: 538
        • Archer D.L.
        • Kvenberg J.E.
        Incidence and cost of foodborne diarrheal disease in the United States.
        J. Food Prot. 1985; 48: 887
        • Barnes R.
        • Archer P.
        • Strack J.
        • Istre G.R.
        Listeriosis associated with consumption of turkey franks.
        Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 1989; 38: 267
        • Bille J.
        Epidemiology of human listeriosis in Europe.
        in: Comprehensive Conference on Listeria monocytogenes of the Soc., Ind. Microbiol., Arlington, VA. Rohnert Park, CA, Oct. 2–51988: 12
        • Bradshaw J.G.
        • Peeler J.T.
        • Corwin J.J.
        • Barnett J.E.
        • Twedt R.M.
        Thermal resistance of disease associated Salmonella typhimurium in milk.
        J. Food Prot. 1987; 50: 95
        • Bryan F.L.
        Epidemiology of milk-borne diseases.
        J. Food Prot. 1983; 46: 637
        • Bunning V.K.
        • Donnelly C.W.
        • Peeler J.T.
        • Briggs E.H.
        • Bradshaw J.G.
        • Crawford R.G.
        • Beliveau C.M.
        • Tiemey J.T.
        Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes within bovine macrophages.
        Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1988; 54: 364
        • Centers for Disease Control
        Multi-state outbreak of yersiniosis.
        Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 1982; 31: 505
        • Chalker R.B.
        • Blaser M.J.
        A review of human salmonellosis: III. Magnitude of salmonella infection in the United States.
        Rev. Infect Dis. 1988; 10: 111
        • Donnelly C.W.
        • Briggs E.H.
        Psychrotrophic growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of milk composition.
        J. Food Prot. 1986; 49: 994
        • Doyle M.P.
        • Glass K.A.
        • Beery J.T.
        • Garcia G.A.
        • Pollard D.J.
        • Schultz R.D.
        Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in milk during high-temperature, short- time pasteurization.
        Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1987; 53: 1433
        • Fleming D.W.
        • Cochi S.L.
        • MacDonald K.L.
        • Brondum J.
        • Hayes P.S.
        • Plikaytis B.D.
        • Holmes M.B.
        • Audurier A.
        • Broome C.V.
        • Reingold A.L.
        Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis.
        New England J. Med. 1985; 312: 404
        • Gellin B.G.
        • Broome C.V.
        J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1989; 261: 1313
        • Golnazarian C.A.
        • Donnelly C.W.
        • Pintauro S.J.
        • Howard D.B.
        Comparison of infectious dose of Listeria monocytogenes F5817 as determined for normal versus compromised C57B1/6J mice.
        J. Food Prot. 1989; 52: 696
        • Gray M.L.
        • Killinger A.H.
        Listeria monocytogenes and listeric infections.
        Bacteriol. Rev. 1966; 30: 309
        • Klausner R.B.
        • Donnelly C.W.
        • George D.F.
        Environmental Sources of Listeria and Yersinia in Vermont Dairy Plants.
        in: Abstr. 76th Annu. Mtg. Int. Assoc. Milk, Food and Enviroa Sanit., Kansas City, MO1989
        • Kozak J.J.
        FDA's Dairy Program Initiatives.
        Dairy Food Sanit. 1986; 6: 184
        • Larsen J.H.
        Yersinia enterocolitica infections and rheumatic diseases.
        Scand. J. Rheumatol. 1980; 9: 129
        • Linnan M.J.
        • Mascola L.
        • Lou X.D.
        • Goulet V.
        • May S.
        • Salminen C.
        • Hird D.W.
        • Yonekura M.L.
        • Hayes P.
        • Weaver R.
        • Audurier A.
        • Plikaytis B.D.
        • Fannin S.L.
        • Kleks A.
        • Broome C.V.
        Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese.
        New England J. Med. 1988; 319: 823
      1. Margolis, J. D. 1985. Salmonellosis outbreak - Hillfarm Dairy: Melrose Park, IL. Page 24 in Final Task Force Rep., U.S. Public Health Service, September 13, 1985.

        • Potter M.E.
        • Kaufman A.F.
        • Blake P.A.
        • Feldman R.A.
        Unpasteurized milk - The hazards of a health fetish.
        J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1984; 252: 2048
        • Rodriguez L.D.
        • Fernandez G.S.
        • Fernandez J.
        • Garayzabel F.
        • Ferri E.R.
        New methodology for the Isolation of Listeria microorganisms from heavily contaminated environments.
        Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1984; 47: 1188
        • Ryser E.T.
        • Matth E.H.
        Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Cheddar cheese.
        J. Food Prot. 1987; 50: 7
        • Ryser E.T.
        • Marth E.H.
        Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese.
        J. Food Prot. 1987; 50: 372
        • Schelch W.F.
        • Lavigne P.M.
        • Bortolussi R.A.
        • Allen A.C.
        • Haldene E.V.
        • Wort A.J.
        • Hightower A.W.
        • Johnson S.E.
        • King S.H.
        • Nicholls E.S.
        • Broome C.V.
        Epidemic listeriosis–evidence for transmission by food.
        New England J. Med. 1983; 308: 203
        • Schwartz B.
        • Cielsielski C.A.
        • Broome C.V.
        • Gaventa S.
        • Brown G.R.
        • Gellin B.G.
        • Hightower A.W.
        • L. Mascola and the Listeriosis Study Group
        Association of sporadic listeriosis associated with consumption of uncooked hot dogs and undercooked chicken.
        Lancet. 1988; ii: 779
        • Seeliger H.P.R.
        • Jones D.
        Genus Listeria pirie.
        in: 9th ed. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 2. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD1986: 1235
        • Todd T.C.D.
        Economic loss from foodborne disease and non-illness related recalls because of mishandling by food processors.
        J. Food Prot. 1985; 48: 621