Article| Volume 76, ISSUE 12, P3621-3628, December 1993

Proteolysis and Rheology of Low Fat and Full Fat Mozzarella Cheeses Prepared from Homogenized Milk1

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      The rheological and proteolytic characteristics of low fat and full fat Mozzarella cheeses made from milk homogenized at 10,300 and 17,200 kPa were compared with those of cheeses prepared from nonhomogenized milk. Half of the samples were cooked at 45.9°C and half at 32.4°C; the lower temperature resulted in higher moisture in nonfat substance. αs1-Casein partially degraded to αs1-I-casein in the cheeses cooked at the lower temperature during 6 wk of refrigerated storage. Except for the 17,200-kPa cheese, proteolysis was dependent on moisture in nonfat substance. Hardness increased with homogenization pressure and decreased with fat percentage and moisture in nonfat substance. Meltability was aided by storage and hindered by fat reduction, higher cooking temperature, and homogenization. Storage modulus decreased during storage and increased with pressure and cooking temperature. A low fat Mozzarella having textural and melting properties comparable with those of a normal high fat cheese can be prepared using homogenized milk, a lower preparation temperature, and refrigerated storage.


      Abbreviation key:

      HF (high fat), HT (high temperature), LF (low fat), LT (low temperature), MNFS (moisture in nonfat substance)


        • Association of Official Analytical Chemists
        Official Methods of Analysis.
        15th ed. AOAC, Washington, DC1990
        • Breene W.M.
        • Price W.V.
        • Emstrom C.A.
        Manufacture of pizza cheese without starter.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1964; 47: 1173
        • Creamer L.K.
        Casein proteolysis in Mozzarella-type cheese.
        N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol. 1976; 11: 30
        • DiMatteo M.
        • Chiovitti G.
        • Addeo F.
        Changes in Mozzarella cheese composition during storage.
        Sci. Tech. Latt. Cas. 1982; 33: 197
        • Farkye N.Y.
        • Kiely L.J.
        • Allshouse R.D.
        • Kindstedt P.S.
        Proteolysis in Mozzarella cheese during refrigerated storage.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 1433
        • Fox P.F.
        Proteolysis during cheese manufacture and ripening.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1989; 72: 1379
        • Fox P.F.
        • Guinee T.P.
        • Major Cheese Groups
        Italian cheeses.
        in: Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology. 2. Elsevier Appl. Sci., New York, NY1987: 229
        • Harvey C.D.
        • Morris H.A.
        • Jenness R.
        Relation between melting and textural properties of process Cheddar cheese.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1982; 65: 2291
        • Jana A.H.
        • Upadhyay K.G.
        The effect of homogenization conditions on the textural and baking characteristics of buffalo milk Mozzarella cheese.
        Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 1991; 46: 27
        • Kalantzopoulos G.
        • Tsakalidou E.
        • Manolopoulou E.
        Proteinase, peptidase, and esterase activities of cell-free extracts from wild strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus isolated from traditional Greek yogurt.
        J. Dairy Res. 1990; 57: 593
        • Keenan T.W.
        • Mather I.H.
        • Dylewski D.P.
        Physical equilibria: lipid phase.
        in: Wong N.P. Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY1988: 565
        • Kosikowski F.V.
        Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods.
        3rd ed. Edwards Bros., Inc., Ann Arbor, MI1982
        • Lawrence R.C.
        • Creamer L.K.
        • Gilles J.
        Texture development during cheese ripening.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1987; 70: 1748
        • Lawrence R.C.
        • Heap H.A.
        • Gilles J.
        A controlled approach to cheese technology.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1984; 67: 1632
        • Lelievre J.R.
        • Shaker R.
        • Taylor M.W.
        The role of homogenization in the manufacture of Halloumi and Mozzarella cheese from recombined milk.
        J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 1990; 43: 21
      1. Luyten, H. 1988. The rheological and fracture properties of Gouda cheese. Ph.D. Diss., Wageningen Agric. Univ., Wageningen, Neth.

        • Park J.
        • Rosenau J.R.
        • Peleg M.
        Comparison of four procedures of cheese meltability evaluation.
        J. Food Sci. 1984; 49: 1158
        • Quarne E.L.
        • Larson W.A.
        • Olson N.F.
        Recovery of milk solids in direct acidification and traditional procedures of manufacturing pizza cheese.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1968; 51: 527
        • Rajagopal S.N.
        • Sandine W.E.
        Associative growth and proteolysis of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in skim milk.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1990; 73: 894
        • Renaud S.
        • deLorgeril M.
        Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease.
        Lancet. 1992; 339: 1523
      2. SAS/STAT® User's Guide, Version 6, 4th Edition. Vol. 2. 1989. SAS Inst.,US Department of Agriculture Inc., Cary, NC.

        • Tunick M.H.
        • Mackey K.L.
        • Shieh J.J.
        • Smith P.W.
        • Cooke P.
        • Malin E.L.
        Rheology and microstructure of low fat Mozzarella cheese.
        Int. Dairy J. 1993; 3: 627
        • Tunick M.H.
        • Mackey K.L.
        • Smith P.W.
        • Holsinger V.
        Effects of composition and storage on the texture of Mozzarella cheese.
        Neth. Milk Dairy J. 1991; 45: 117
        • United States Department of Agriculture
        Composition of Foods. Dairy and Egg Products. Agric. Handbook No. 8-1.
        ARS-USDA, Washington, DC1976
        • United States Department of Agriculture
        Dairy Situation and Outlook Yearbook.
        Econ. Res. Serv., USDA, Washington, DC1991