Article| Volume 80, ISSUE 5, P1005-1028, May 1997

Bovine Acidosis: Implications on Laminitis

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Present address: Spruce Haven Research Center, Union Springs, NY 13160.
    James E. Nocek
    1 Present address: Spruce Haven Research Center, Union Springs, NY 13160.
    Agway Research Center Research and Development, Tully, NY 13159
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Present address: Spruce Haven Research Center, Union Springs, NY 13160.
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Bovine lactic acidosis syndrome is associated with large increases of lactic acid in the rumen, which result from diets that are high in ruminally available carbohydrates, or forage that is low in effective fiber, or both. The syndrome involves two separate anatomical areas, the gastrointestinal tract and body fluids, and is related to the rate and extent of lactic acid production, utilization, and absorption. Clinical manifestations range from loss of appetite to death. Lactic acid accumulates in the rumen when the bacteria that synthesize lactic acid outnumber those that utilize lactic acid. The systemic impact of acidosis may have several physiological implications, including laminitis, a diffuse aseptic inflammation of the laminae (corium). Although a nutritional basis for the disease exists, etiology includes a multitude of interactive factors, such as metabolic and digestive disorders, postpartum stress, and localized trauma, which lead to the release of vasoactive substances that trigger mechanisms that cause degenerative changes in the foot. The severity of laminitis is related to the frequency, intensity, and duration of systemic acidotic insults on the mechanisms responsible for the release of vasoactive substance. The critical link between acidosis and laminitis appears to be associated with a persistent hypoperfusion, which results in ischemia in the digit. Management of acidosis is critical in preventing laminitis. High producing dairy herds attempting to maximize energy intake are continually confronted with subclinical acidosis and laminitis. Management of feeding and husbandry practices can be implemented to reduce incidence of disease.

      Key words

      Abbreviation key:

      AV (arterial-venous difference), eNDF (effective NDF)


        • Aldrich J.M.
        • Muller L.D.
        • Varga G.A.
        • Griel Jr., L.C.
        Nonstructural carbohydrate and protein effects on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow, and performance of dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 1091
        • Altura B.M.
        • Altura B.T.
        Influence of sex hormones, oral contraceptives and pregnancy on vascular muscle and its reactivity.
        in: Carrier O. Shibata S. Factors Affecting Vascular Reactivity. Igaku Shoin, Tokyo, Japan1977: 221
        • Andersson L.
        • Berman A.
        Pathology of bovine laminitis especially as regards vascular lesions.
        Acta Vet. Scand. 1980; 21: 559
        • Annison E.F.
        • Lindsay D.E.
        • White R.R.
        Metabolic interactions of glucose and lactate in sheep.
        Biol. Chem. J. 1963; 88: 3
        • Atkins K.B.
        • Erdman R.A.
        • Vandersall J.H.
        Dietary choline effects on milk yield and duodenal choline flow in dairy cattle.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1988; 71: 109
        • Bargai U.
        • Levin D.
        Lameness in the Israeli dairy herd, prevalence, types, distribution and estimated cost.
        Isr. J. Vet. Med. 1992; 48: 88
        • Bargai U.
        • Schamia I.
        • Lublin A.
        • Bogin E.
        Winter outbreaks of laminitis in dairy calves: etiology and laboratory, radiological and pathological findings.
        Vet. Rec. 1992; 131: 411
        • Barry M.C.
        • Fox D.G.
        • Tylutki T.P.
        • Pell A.N.
        • O’Connor J.D.
        • Sniffen C.J.
        • Chalupa W.
        A Manual for Using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for Evaluating Cattle Diets.
        Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY1994 (Release No. 3)
        • Bazeley K.
        • Pinsent P.J.N.
        Preliminary observations on a series of outbreaks of acute laminitis in dairy cattle.
        Vet. Rec. 1984; 115: 619
        • Beauchemin J.A.
        • Farr B.I.
        • Rode L.M.
        • Schaalje G.B.
        Effects of alfalfa silage chopped length and the supplementary long hay on chewing and milk production of dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1994; 77: 1526
        • Bergsten C.
        Subclinical laminitis: studies on risk factors in first calf heifers.
        in: Proc. 7th Int. Symp. Disorders Ruminant Digit, Rebild, Denmark1992: 55 (June 21-25)
        • Bergsten C.
        A photometric method for recording hoof diseases in cattle, with special reference to hemorrhages of the sole.
        Acta Vet. Scand. 1993; 34: 281
        • Bergsten C.
        Hemorrhages of the sole horn of dairy cows as a retrospective indicator of laminitis: an epidemiological study.
        Acta Vet. Scand. 1994; 35: 55
        • Boosman R.
        • Koeman J.
        • Knap R.
        Histopathology of the bovine pododerma in relation to age and chronic laminitis.
        J. Vet. Med. 1989; 36: 438
        • Boosman R.
        • Nemeth F.
        • Gruys E.
        • Klarenbeck A.
        Arteriographical and pathological changes in chronic laminitis in dairy cattle.
        Vet. Q. 1989; 11: 144
        • Bradley H.K.
        • Shannan D.
        • Neilson D.R.
        Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.
        Vet. Rec. 1989; 125: 177
        • Brent B.E.
        Relationship of acidosis to other feedlot ailments.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1976; 43: 930
        • Brownlee A.
        The development of ruminal papillae in cattle fed different diets.
        Br. Vet. J. 1956; 112: 369
        • Bruce L.A.
        • Huber T.L.
        Inhibitory effects of acid in the intestine on rumen motility in sheep.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1973; 37: 164
        • Cameron M.R.
        • Klusmeyer T.H.
        • Lynch G.L.
        • Clark J.H.
        • Nelson D.R.
        Effects of urea and starch on rumen fermentation, nutrient passage to the duodenum, and performance of cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 1321
        • Casper D.P.
        • Schingoethe D.J.
        Evaluation of urea and dried whey in diets of cows during early lactation.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1986; 69: 1346
        • Chavance J.
        Histamine theory and treatment of laminitis Vet.
        Med. 1946; 41: 199
        • Colan-Ainsworth P.
        • Lunn G.A.
        • Thomas R.C.
        • Eddy R.G.
        Behavior of cows in cubicles and its possible relationship with laminitis in replacement heifers.
        Vet. Rec. 1989; 125: 573
        • Coppock C.E.
        • Schelling G.T.
        • Byers F.M.
        • West J.W.
        • Labore J.M.
        • Gates C.E.
        A naturally occurring mineral as a buffer in the diet of lactating dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1986; 69: 111
        • Counotte G.H.
        • Prins R.A.
        • Janssen R.A.M.
        • de Bie M.J.A.
        Role of Megasphera elsdenii in the fermentation of DL-[2-13C]lactate in the rumen of dairy cattle.
        Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1981; 42: 649
        • Cricklow E.C.
        • Chaplin R.K.
        Ruminal lactic acidosis: relationship of forestomach motility to nondissociated volatile fatty acid levels.
        Am. J. Vet. Res. 1985; 46: 1908
        • Cummins K.A.
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Polan C.E.
        Growth and nitrogen of calves fed rations of varying nitrogen degradability and physical form.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1982; 65: 773
        • Dado R.G.
        • Allen M.S.
        Intake limitations, feeding behavior, and rumen of cows challenged with rumen fill from dietary fiber or inert bulk.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1995; 78: 118
        • Dain J.L.
        • Neal A.L.
        • Dougherty R.W.
        The occurrence of histamine and tyramine in rumen ingesta of experimentally overfed sheep.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1955; 14: 930
        • DePeters E.J.
        • Taylor S.J.
        Effects of feeding corn or barley on composition of milk and diet digestibility.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1985; 68: 2027
        • DeVisser H.
        • VanDerTogt P.L.
        • Tamminga S.
        Structural and non-structural carbohydrates in concentrate supplements of silage-based dairy cow rations. 1. Feed intake and milk production.
        Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 1990; 38: 487
        • Dewes H.F.
        Some aspects of lameness in dairy herds.
        N. Z. Vet. J. 1978; 26: 147
        • Dirksen G.
        Rumen function and disorders related to production disease.
        in: Proc. VII Int. Conf. Dis. Farm Anim. Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY1989: 350
        • Dirksen V.G.
        • Liebich H.G.
        • Brosi G.
        • Hagemeister H.
        • Mayer E.
        Rumen mucosa morphology and fatty acid absorption-significant factors for health and production.
        Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. 1984; 31: 414
        • Dougherty R.W.
        • Corburn K.W.
        • Cock H.M.
        • Allison M.J.
        Preliminary study of the appearance of endotoxins in circulatory system of sheep and cattle after induced grain engorgement.
        Anim. J. Vet. Res. 1975; 36: 831
        • Dunlap R.H.
        • Hammond P.B.
        D-lactic acidosis of ruminant.
        Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 1965; 119: 1109
        • Eddy R.G.
        • Scott C.P.
        Some observations on the incidence of lameness in dairy cattle in Somerset.
        Vet. Rec. 1980; 106: 140
        • Edwards G.B.
        Acute and sub-acute laminitis in cattle.
        Vet. Annu. 1982; 22: 99
        • Enevoldsen C.
        • Grohn Y.T.
        • Thysen I.
        Sole ulcers in dairy cattle: association with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 1284
        • Feng P.
        • Hoover W.H.
        • Miller T.K.
        • Blauwiekel R.
        Interactions of fiber and nonstructural carbohydrates on lactation and ruminal function.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 1324
      1. Fischer, J. M., J. G. Buchanan-Smith, C. Campbell, G. G. Grieve, and O. B. Allen. Effects of forage particle size and long hay for cows fed total mixed rations based on alfalfa and corn. J. Dairy Sci. 77:217.

        • Fulton W.
        • Klopfenstein T.J.
        • Britton R.A.
        Adaptation to high concentrate diets by beef cattle. I. Adaptation to corn and wheat diets.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1979; 49: 775
        • Fulton W.R.
        • Klopfenestein T.J.
        • Britton R.A.
        Adaptation to high concentrate diets by beef cattle. II. Effect of ruminal pH alteration on rumen fermentation and voluntary intake of wheat diets.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1979; 49: 785
        • Garrett E.F.
        • Pereira M.N.
        • Armentano L.E.
        • Nordlund K.V.
        • Oetzel G.R.
        Comparison of pH and VFA concentration of ruminal fluid from dairy cows collected through a rumen cannula vs. ruminocentesis.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1995; 78 (Abstr.): 299
      2. Gentile, G., S. Cinotti, G. Ferri, and P. Famigli-Bergamini. 1986 Nutritional acidosis and technological characteristics of milk in high producing dairy cows. Page 823 in Proc. 14th World Congr. Diseases Cattle. P. J. Harigan and M. L. Monaghan, ed. Dublin, Ireland.

        • Ghorbani G.R.
        • Jackson J.A.
        • Hemken R.W.
        Effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate on animal performance, ruminal metabolism, and systemic acidbase status.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1989; 72: 2039
        • Giesecke D.
        • Stangassinger M.
        Lactic acid metabolism.
        Physiology and Metabolism in Ruminants. AVI Publ. Co., Inc, Westport, CT1980 (Page 523)
        • Goth A.
        Medical Pharmacology.
        7th ed. C. B. Mosby Co, St. Louis, MO1974
        • Grant R.J.
        • Colenbrander V.F.
        • Mertens D.R.
        Milk fat depression in dairy cows: role of particle size of alfalfa hay.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1990; 73: 1823
        • Grant R.J.
        • Colenbrander V.F.
        • Mertens D.R.
        Milk fat depression in dairy cows: role of silage particle size.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1990; 73: 1834
        • Greenough P.R.
        Laminitis review.
        in: Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Disorders Ruminant Digit. Ecole Natl. Vet. d’Alfort, Paris, France1982: 1 (October 7-10)
        • Greenough P.R.
        • MacCallum F.J.
        • Weaver A.D.
        Lameness in Cattle.
        J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA1972
        • Greenough P.R.
        • Vermunt J.J.
        Evaluation of subclinical laminitis in a dairy herd and observations on associated nutritional and management factors.
        Vet. Rec. 1991; 128: 11
        • Grohn Y.T.
        • Bruss M.L.
        Effective diseases, production, and season on traumatic reticuloperitonitis and ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1990; 73: 2355
        • Harmon D.L.
        • Britton R.A.
        • Prior R.L.
        Influence of diet on glucose turnover and rates of gluconeogenesis, oxidation and turnover of D-(–)-lactate in the bovine.
        J. Nutr. 1983; 113: 1842
        • Harmon D.L.
        • Britton R.A.
        • Prior R.L.
        • Stock R.A.
        Net portal absorption of lactate in volatile fatty acids in steers experiencing glucose induced acidosis or fatty 70% concentrate diet ad libitum.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1985; 60: 560
        • Hession A.O.
        • Kung L.
        Altering ruminal fermentation by microbial inoculation with lactate utilizing microorganism.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1992; 70 (Abstr.): 311
        • Huber T.L.
        Effect of acute indigestion of compartmental water volumes and osmolarity in sheep.
        Am. J. Vet. Res. 1971; 32: 887
        • Huber T.L.
        Physiological effects of acidosis on feed lot cattle.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1976; 43: 902
        • Huhtanen P.
        • Miettinen H.
        • Ylinen M.
        Effect of increasing ruminal butyrate on milk yield and blood constituents in dairy cows fed a grass silage-based diet.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 1114
        • Huntington G.B.
        in: Church D.C. The Ruminant Animal: Digestive Physiology and Nutrition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ1988: 474
        • Huntington G.B.
        • Britton R.A.
        Effective dietary lactic acid on rumen lactate metabolism and blood acid base stasis of lambs switched from low to high concentrate diets.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1979; 49: 1569
        • Johnson M.A.
        • Sweeney T.F.
        • Muller L.D.
        Effects of feeding synthetic zeolite A sodium bicarbonate on milk production nutrient digestion, and rate of digesta passage in dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1988; 71: 946
        • Jubb K.V.
        • Kennedy P.C.
        2nd ed. Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol.2. Academic Press, New York, NY1970
        • Kaufmann W.
        • Hagemeister H.
        • Dirksen G.
        Adaptation to changes in dietary composition, level and frequency of feeding.
        Physiology and Metabolism of Ruminants. AVI Publ. Co, Westport, CT1980 (587)
        • Khorasani G.R.
        • DeBoer G.
        • Robinson B.
        • Kennelly J.J.
        Influence of dietary protein in starch on production and metabolic responses in dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1994; 77: 813
        • Klusmeyer T.H.
        • Lynch G.L.
        • Clark J.H.
        Effects of calcium salts of fatty acids and protein source on ruminal fermentation and nutrient flow to duodenum of cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 2206
        • Kostyra E.
        • Jaworski J.
        • Glazer T.
        • Rusiecki M.
        • Janowski T.
        • Ras A.
        Changes in composition of nitrogen compounds of milk caused by acute experimental acidosis in the cow.
        Acta Acad. Agric. Tecn. Olstenensis Vet. 1993; 11: 118
        • Kung L.
        • Hession A.O.
        Preventing in vitro lactate accumulation in ruminal fermentations by inoculation of Megasphera elsdenii.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1995; 73: 250
        • Liebich H.G.
        • Dirksen G.
        • Arbel A.
        • Dori S.
        • Mayer E.
        Feed dependent changes in the ruminal mucosa on high producing cows during the dry period and first eight weeks postpartum.
        J. Vet. Med. 1987; 34: 661
        • Livesey C.T.
        • Fleming F.L.
        Nutritional influences on laminitis, sole ulcer and bruised sole in Friesian cows.
        Vet. Rec. 1984; 114: 510
        • Mackie R.I.
        • Gilcrest F.M.C.
        • Heath S.
        In vivo study of ruminal microorganisms influencing lactate turnover and its contribution to volatile fatty production.
        J. Agric. Sci. 1984; 103: 37
        • Maclean C.W.
        Observations on acute laminitis of cattle in South Hampshire.
        Vet. Rec. 1965; 77: 662
        • Maclean C.W.
        Observations on laminitis and intense beef units.
        Vet. Rec. 1966; 78: 223
        • Maclean C.W.
        The hematology of bovine laminitis.
        Vet. Rec. 1970; 86: 710
        • Maclean C.W.
        The histopathology of laminitis in dairy cows.
        J. Comp. Pathol. 1971; 81: 25
        • Manson F.J.
        • Leaver J.D.
        The influence of concentrate amount on locomotion and clinical lameness in dairy cattle.
        Anim. Prod. 1988; 47: 185
        • Manson F.J.
        • Leaver J.D.
        The influence of dietary protein intake and of hoof trimming on lameness in dairy cattle.
        Anim. Prod. 1988; 47: 191
        • Manson F.J.
        • Leaver J.D.
        The effect of concentrates: silage ratio and hoof trimming on lameness in dairy cattle.
        Anim. Prod. 1989; 49: 15
        • McCarthy Jr., R.D.
        • Klusmeyer T.H.
        • Vicini J.L.
        • Clark J.H.
        Effects of source of protein and carbohydrate on ruminal fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactating cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1989; 72: 2002
        • Merck and Co.
        Merck Index.
        in: Windholz M. Encyclopedia of Chemicals and Drugs. 9th ed. Merck and Company, Inc, Rahway, NJ1976: 619
        • Mgassa M.N.
        • Amaya-Posada G.
        • Hesselholt M.
        Pododermitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) in free range beef cattle in tropical Africa.
        Vet. Rec. 1984; 115: 413
        • Mortensen K.
        Bovine laminitis (diffuse aseptic pododermitis): clinical and pathological findings.
        in: Greenough P. Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Disorders Ruminant Digits Int. Conf. Bovine Lameness. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Banff, Alberta, Canada1994: 210
        • Mullenax C.H.
        • Keeler R.F.
        • Allison M.J.
        Physiological response of ruminants to toxic factors extracted from rumen bacteria and rumen fluid.
        Anim. J. Vet. Res. 1966; 27: 857
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Town G.
        Ciliated protozoa in relation to ruminal acidosis and lactic acid metabolism.
        in: Oneora R. Minato H. Itabashi H. Rumen Ecosystem: Microbial Metabolism and Regulation. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY1990: 194
        • Nagel S.
        • Broderick G.A.
        Effect of formic acid or formaldehyde treatment of alfalfa silage on nutrient utilization by dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1992; 75: 140
        • National Research Council
        Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.
        6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci, Washington, DC1989
        • Nilsson S.A.
        Clinical morphological and experimental studies of laminitis in cattle.
        Acta Vet. Scand. 1963; 4: 1
        • Nisbet D.J.
        • Martin S.
        Factors affecting L-lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1994; 72: 1355
        • Nocek J.E.
        Bovine foot anatomy: a functional and practical perspective.
        Prof. Anim. Sci. 1986; 2: 1
        • Nocek J.E.
        Characterization of in situ dry matter and nitrogen in various corn grain forms.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1987; 70: 2291
        • Nocek J.E.
        Feeding sequence and strategy effects on ruminal environment and production performance in first lactation cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1992; 75: 3100
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Heald C.W.
        • Polan C.E.
        Influence of ration of physical form and nitrogen availability on ruminal morphology of growing bull calves.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1984; 67: 334
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Herbein J.H.
        • Polan C.E.
        Influence of ration physical form rumen degradable nitrogen and age on rumen epithelial propionate and acetate transport and some enzymatic activities.
        J. Nutr. 1980; 110: 2355
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Kessler E.M.
        Growth and rumen characteristics of Holstein steers fed pelleted or conventional diets.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1980; 63: 249
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Polan C.E.
        Influence of ration physical form of nitrogen availability on rumen fermentation patterns and plasma of growing bull calves.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1984; 67: 1038
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Russell J.B.
        Protein and energy as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminal protein and carbohydrates availability to microbial synthesis and milk production.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1988; 71: 2070
        • Nocek J.E.
        • Tamminga S.
        Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 3598
      3. Norlund, K. V. 1995. Herd based rumenocentesis: a clinical approach to the diagnosis subacute rumen acidosis. Page 1 in Northeast Med. Symp. R. Saltman, ed. Syracuse, NY.

        • Nordlund K.V.
        • Garrett E.F.
        Rumenocentesis: a technique for collecting rumen fluid for the diagnosis of subacute rumen acidosis in dairy herds.
        Bovine Pract. 1994; 28: 109
        • Olivera J.S.
        • Huber J.T.
        • Ben-Ghedalia D.
        • Swingle R.S.
        • Theurer C.B.
        • Pessarkli M.
        Influence of sorghum grain processing on performance of lactating dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 575
        • Ossent P.
        • Lischer C.J.
        Theories on the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis.
        in: Greenough P.R. Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Disorder Rumin. Digit Int. Conf. Bovine Lameness. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Banff, Alberta, Canada1994: 207
        • Petit H.V.
        • Veira D.M.
        Effect of grain level and protein source on ruminal fermentation, degradability, and digestion in milking cows fed silage.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 2256
        • Philipot J.M.
        • Pluvinage P.
        • Luquet F.
        Clinical characterization of a syndrome by ecopathology methods: an example of dairy cow lameness.
        Vet. Res. 1994; 25: 239
        • Poore M.H.
        • Moore J.A.
        • Swingle R.S.
        • Eck T.E.
        • Brown W.H.
        Response of lactating Holstein cows to diets varying in fiber source and rumen starch degradability.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 2235
        • Prentice D.E.
        • Neal P.A.
        Some observations on the incidence of lameness in dairy cattle in West Cheshire.
        Vet. Rec. 1972; 91: 1
        • Reilly P.E.B.
        • Chandrasena L.G.
        Sheep lactate entry measurements: error to sampling jugular blood.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1977; 233: E138
        • Reilly P.E.B.
        • Chandrasena L.G.
        Glucose lactate interactions in sheep.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1978; 235: E487
        • Robinson J.A.
        • Smolenski W.J.
        • Greening R.C.
        • Ogilvie M.L.
        • Bell R.L.
        • Barsuhn K.
        • Peters J.P.
        Prevention of acute acidosis and enhancement of feed intake in the bovine by Megasphera elsdenii 407A.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1992; 70 (Abstr.): 310
        • Robinson P.H.
        • McQueen R.E.
        Influence of rumen fermentable neutral detergent fiber levels on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1992; 75: 520
        • Rodwell A.W.
        The occurrence and distribution of amino acid decarboxylases within the genus lactobacillus.
        J. Gen. Microbiol. 1953; 8: 222
        • Rowland G.J.
        • Russell A.M.
        • Williams L.A.
        Effects of stage of lactation, month, age, origin and heart girth on lameness in dairy cattle.
        Vet. Rec. 1985; 117: 576
        • Russell A.M.
        • Rollands J.G.
        • Shaw R.S.
        • Weaver A.D.
        Survey of lameness in British cattle.
        Vet. Rec. 1982; 111: 155
        • Russell J.B.
        Ecology of rumen microorganisms: energy use.
        in: Dobson A. Dobson M. Aspects of Digestive Physiology and Ruminates. Proc. 30th Int. Congr. Int. Union Physiological Sci. Proc. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY1986: 74
        • Russell J.B.
        • Hino T.
        Regulation of lactate production in streptococcus bovis: a spiraling effect that contributes to rumen acidosis.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1985; 68: 1712
        • Russell J.B.
        • Sharp W.M.
        • Baldwin R.L.
        The effect of pH on maximum bacterial growth rate and its possible role as a determinant of bacterial competition in the rumen.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1979; 48: 251
        • Sanford J.
        Formation of histamine in ruminal fluid.
        Nature (Lond.). 1963; 199: 829
        • Sarwar M.
        • Firkins J.L.
        • Eastridge M.L.
        Effects of varying forage and concentrate carbohydrates on nutrient digestibilities and milk production by dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1992; 75: 1533
        • Stangassinger M.
        • Giesecke D.
        Untersuchunger zur Genese und. Biochemie o’er Pansenacidose 6. Renal Ausscheidung von Michsaure-Isomeren.
        Zentralb. Veterinaermed. Reihe A. 1978; 25: 597
        • Stock R.
        • Britton R.A.
        Acidosis in feedlot cattle.
        Scientific Update on Rumensin/Tylan for the Professional Feedlot Consultant. Elanco Anim. Health, Indianapolis, IN1993 (A1)
        • Stokes M.R.
        • Vandemark L.L.
        • Bull L.S.
        Effects of sodium bicarbonate, magnesium oxide, and a commercial buffer mixture in early lactation cows fed haycrop silage.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1986; 69: 1595
        • Stokes S.R.
        • Hoover W.H.
        • Miller T.K.
        • Blauweikel R.
        Ruminal digestion and microbial utilization of diets varying in type of carbohydrate and protein.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 871
        • Strobel H.J.
        • Russell J.B.
        Effect of pH and energy spilling on bacterial protein synthesis by carbohydrate-limited cultures of mixed rumen bacteria.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1986; 69: 2941
        • Telle P.P.
        • Preston R.L.
        Bovine lactic acidosis: intra-ruminal and systemic.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1971; 33: 698
        • Theurer C.D.
        Grain processing effects on starch utilization by ruminants.
        J. Anim. Sci. 1986; 63: 1649
        • Toussant-Raven E.
        Some reflections after three symposia on bovine digital disorders.Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Int. Disorders Rumin. Digit.
        Ecole Natl. Vet. D’Alfort, Paris, France1982 (October 7-10)
        • Tranter W.P.
        • Morris R.S.
        A case study of lameness in three dairy herds.
        N. Z. Vet. J. 1991; 39: 88
        • Tranter W.P.
        • Morris R.S.
        • Williamson N.B.
        A longitudinal study of the hooves on non-lame cows.
        N. Z. Vet. J. 1991; 39: 53
        • Tucker W.B.
        • Harrison G.A.
        • Hemken R.W.
        Influence of dietary cation-anion balance on milk, blood, urine, and rumen fluid in lactating dairy cattle.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1988; 71: 346
        • Valdez F.R.
        • Harrison J.H.
        • Fransen S.C.
        Effect of feeding silage of early and late maturing corn planted at two population densities to lactating dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1989; 72: 2081
        • Vermunt J.J.
        Predisposing causes of laminitis.
        in: Greenough G.R. Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Disorders Ruminant Digits Int. Conf. Bovine Lameness. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Banff, Alberta, Canada1994: 236
        • Voelker H.H.
        • Casper D.P.
        • Ludens F.C.
        • Schingoethe D.J.
        High moisture corn preserved with esters of propionic acid for lactating cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1989; 72: 89
        • Wagner K.M.
        • Firkins J.L.
        • Eastridge M.L.
        • Hull B.L.
        Replacement of corn silage with wheat middlings and calcium chloride or sodium bicarbonate for lactating dairy cows.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 564
        • Weekes T.E.C.
        Effects of pregnancy in lactation in sheep on the metabolism of propionate by the ruminal mucosa and on some enzymatic activities in the ruminal mucosa.
        J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.). 1972; 79: 409
        • Weigand E.J.
        • Young W.
        • McGilliard A.D.
        Volatile fatty acid metabolism of rumen mucosa fed from cattle fed hay or grain.
        J. Dairy Sci. 1975; 58: 1294
        • Wells S.J.
        • Trent A.M.
        • Marsh W.E.
        • McGovern P.G.
        • Robinson R.A.
        Individual cow risk factors for clinical lameness in lactating dairy cows.
        Prev. Vet. Med. 1993; 17: 95
        • Whitaker D.A.
        • Kelly J.M.
        • Smith E.J.
        Incidence of lameness in dairy cows.
        Vet. Rec. 1983; 113: 60
        • Whitehurst G.B.
        • Beitz D.C.
        • Pothoven M.A.
        • Ellison R.
        • Crump M.H.
        Lactate as a precursor of fatty acids in bovine adipose tissue.
        J. Nutr. 1978; 108: 1806